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Generate parentheses

Given n, write a function to generate all combinations of well-formed parentheses. This problem can be solved in LeetCode.


n = 1

n = 2
["(())", "()()"]

n = 3
["((()))", "(()())", "(())()", "()(())", "()()()"]


If the problem is to find the number of the combination, this is a Catalan number sequence problem. However, we need to print all combinations. Therefore, this is a typical backtracking search problem because we need to explore every possible outcomes.

Let's look at the code first.

from typing import List

def generate_parenthesis(n: int) -> List[str]:
    """Generate all combinations of well-formed parentheses

        >>> generate_parenthesis(3)
        ['((()))', '(()())', '(())()', '()(())', '()()()']

    def backtrack(current: str,
                  left: int,
                  right: int,
                  result: List[str] = []) -> List[str]:

        if len(current) == 2 * n:

        if left < n:
            backtrack(current + "(", left + 1, right)

        if right < left:
            backtrack(current + ")", left, right + 1)

        return result

    return backtrack("", 0, 0)

One way of tackling this problem is to track the number of open(left) parentheses and the number of close(right) parentheses.


  • left: the number of open parentheses
  • right: the number of close parentheses


  • We know we can have n open parentheses and n close parentheses
  • Therefore, add a open parenthesis as long as left < n.
  • We can only add a closing parenthesis when right < left.

Notice that we don't break the validity of the parentheses as long as we close parentheses when right < left.

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